This is the street name for substances containing synthetic cathinone stimulants, such as methylenedioxypyrovalrone (MDPV) and mephedrone.11The components of the bad salt act synergistically on the dopamine transporter site and better dopamine transmission can increase the potential for abuse. MDPV is used with other illegal abuse drugs. It is the main ingredient of “bath salts”. As a synthetic derivative of cathinone, it produces an effect similar to that of cocaine or methamphetamine. It can be administered orally, by nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenously/intramuscularly or through the rectum, and the intoxication lasts for several hours. From the above description, it is clear that synthetic drugs fall into three broad categories: synthetic cathinones (bath salts), synthetic cannabinoids (spices or incense) and amphetamine-type drugs (methamphetamine, ephedrine, MDMA). Cathinones, which are related to the amphetamine family, cause dilated pupils, high blood pressure, hyperventilation, paranoia, agitation, hyperthermia, tremors and convulsions. Many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, such as mephedrone, methylone and MDPV. In fact, robust stimulation of dopamine transmission by MDPV predicts a serious potential for abuse and could provide a mechanism to explain the side effects seen in people taking high doses of “bath salt” supplements. In addition, pyrovalerone is much stronger than cocaine in inhibiting the absorption of dopamine and norepinephrine. According to the American Association of Poison Control Data, other effects of synthetic marijuana include: palpitations, high blood pressure, nausea and vomiting, convulsions and convulsions, intense hallucinations and psychotic episodes, and even suicidal thoughts and actions and other harmful thoughts and actions. A few caveats: You can smoke in your home or garden, but if you rent and your lease prohibits smoking, you`re out of luck.

You cannot smoke in public, in a restaurant or in a bar. And it`s still illegal to “drive” – we`ll get to that later. Mephedrone introduces a greater increase in dopamine than the release of serotonin, while MDMA (“ecstasy”) induces a huge increase in serotonin with an insignificant increase in dopamine. Amphetamine leads to an increase in dopamine release with an insignificant increase in serotonin. Mephedrone, amphetamine and MDMA have decay values of 25, 50 and 300 minutes, respectively. Therefore, the rapid rise and fall in dopamine levels could explain the addictive properties of mephedrone in some users. The effects are often described as somewhere between ecstasy and cocaine. As with cocaine, the “high” usually lasts about an hour before subsiding. In addition, prolonged use of substances in high doses can lead to long-lasting neurotransmitter deficiencies in humans. 8 9 The main active ingredients of khat are cathinone and cathine. By chewing khat, these substances are excreted in saliva. The effects are similar to those of amphetamine, but less severe.

Psychological dependence occurs in some, although khat is usually not addictive. It is available for free in many countries and its production, sale and consumption are legal, including in the Horn of Africa. In the Arabian Peninsula it is known as Arabic tea and in South Africa as Bushman tea. Some users will start taking an illegal drug again if the legal alternative is prohibited. There is also a certain curiosity to experiment with new drugs. Nevertheless, to keep things in perspective, the use of more harmful known illicit drugs (e.g. cocaine, amphetamines) has not decreased, with more than 315 million people worldwide reportedly using them. What is even more worrying is that millions of people inject more harmful drugs such as opiates, leading to increased rates of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections. Readers will also likely be aware of the violence and deaths associated with the manufacture and delivery of medicines in countries such as Latin America. In 2011, the newspaper Mixmag and The Guardian, which builds on previous Mixmag surveys, collected 15,500 responses from around the world, mostly from the UK. In 2010/2011, reported use of mephedrone in the past year and month was three times higher among clubbers (30% and 13%) than among non-clubbers (10% and 3%).

In one study, the most commonly observed class of drugs was piperazines, followed by cathinones, with significant variations in content in a quarter of these compounds. The authors stated that it was relatively easy to purchase a number of legal highs from different Internet service providers, although there were times when not all products were available, which led to the problem that consumers were buying active ingredients different from those they are used to, which increased the prospect of possible toxicity to unknown agents.5A cross-sectional survey of 947 mephedrone users revealed that it is the sixth most common drug in the previous month after tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. The users were usually young men; 15% reported using it once a week or more frequently; almost 50% between 0.5 and 1 g used during a typical session; Intranasal use was the most common route of administration (70%). Nearly 55% of those who used cocaine reported that the “high” obtained with mephedrone was better: intranasal use was also more addictive than oral use. Mephedrone appears to be the most commonly consumed synthetic cathinone in Europe, unlike in the United States, where MDVP and methylone are most often abused. 6 7 That chemical was AM-2201, which was commonly found in synthetic marijuana. But it wasn`t an illegal drug that Chase got from who knows where. In fact, synthetic marijuana is completely legal in more states. And there`s a good chance it`s available at a supermarket near you. Methoxetamine (also known as “Mexxy”) is available on the Internet and is marketed as “legal ketamine”. It is an arylcyclohexylamine chemically bound to ketamine and PCP (phencyclidine).

Methoxetamine works longer and is stronger than ketamine. The drug, a white powder, is usually taken sublingually, sniffed, “bombarded” or injected intramuscularly. Doses are usually between 5 mg and 90 mg orally. After the nasal discharge of the drug, it may take 30-90 minutes for its effect to become apparent. With the injection, the onset of action usually takes place within five to ten minutes. The total duration of the effect is of the order of 1 to 3 hours, sometimes more. The drug induces feelings of detachment (dissociative state), paranoid symptoms, visual hallucinations, restlessness and increased energy in some. Other reported symptoms include confusion, catatonia, depression, tachycardia, and high blood pressure.

Methoxetamine is now a Class B drug under the Drug Abuse Act.18 19 It is legal, generally marketed as “plant-based incense” or “plant-based potpourri,” and sold in convenience stores, main stores, cigar stores, and on the Internet. It costs $3 and more per gram (depending on the brand).