The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. Article III of the United States Constitution created the Supreme Court and authorized Congress to pass laws establishing a system of lower courts. In the current form of the federal judicial system, 94 district courts and 13 appellate courts sit below the Supreme Court. Learn more about the Supreme Court. District courts hear appeals from cases brought before the courts of first instance. At present, regional courts of first instance hear only criminal cases, while district courts hear criminal and civil cases. The magistrate takes decisions before a court of first instance; sometimes with the support of lay examiners. The Magistrates` Courts may be divided into criminal courts or civil courts. In U.S.

federal courts, a magistrate judge is a bailiff authorized under 28 U.S.C. § 631 et seq. They were formerly known as American commissioners, then magistrates. Magistrate judges, appointed since 1990, are appointed by the federal district judges for life of a given court, who may serve and be reappointed for eight years full-time or four years part-time. Presiding judges conduct a wide range of court proceedings to expedite the disposition of civil and criminal cases in U.S. District Courts. Congress established in law the powers and responsibilities that could be delegated from district judges to judges. However, in order to provide maximum flexibility to meet the needs of each court, Congress has left it to each court to effectively decide what functions should be assigned to magistrate judges. The competence of judges varies from state to state. They preside over the courts, called Magistrates` Courts, Local Courts or Courts of Petty Sessions, depending on the state. Federal courts hear cases involving the constitutionality of a law, cases involving the laws and treaties of U.S. ambassadors and public ministers, disputes between two or more states, admiralty law, also known as maritime law, and bankruptcy cases.

There are two types of judges in England and Wales:[4] justices of the peace and district judges (formerly known as scholarship magistrates), who are members of the professional justice system. Depending on the needs, approximately 50 per cent of judges are women. More than 41% of judges have left the employment relationship, while others are self-employed or may take leave. [ref. needed] Trial courts consist of the district judge hearing the case and a jury deciding the case. Presiding judges assist district judges in preparing cases for trial. They can also prosecute administrative offences. Download a map of how federal courts are divided into twelve regional counties and one federal district. There are currently seven magistrates` courts in Hong Kong. Judges exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of offences. Although there is a general limit of two years` imprisonment or a fine of HK$100,000, some legal provisions give judges the power to sentence up to three years in prison and impose a fine of up to HK$5,000,000. Judges are slightly rarer in the United States than in Europe, but the situation exists in some state and federal courts.

There is at least one District Court in each state and District of Columbia. Each district includes a U.S. bankruptcy court as a unit of the district court. Four U.S. territories have U.S. district courts that hear federal cases, including bankruptcy cases: Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. There are also two special courts of first instance. The Court of International Trade hears cases concerning international trade and customs law. The U.S.

Federal Court of Claims hears most claims for damages against the U.S. government. Magistrates use their training and sound judgment to oversee the application and enforcement of state laws, municipal laws, and court procedures. Judges have jurisdiction over civil cases where the value of the dispute is less than ten thousand dollars. They hear administrative offences and conduct preliminary investigations into criminal offences. In criminal cases, they issue and register affidavits, complaints, arrest warrants and search warrants, fix bail, and make decisions on proposed plea agreements, recovery of court costs, cash bonds, and fines. There are five categories of judges in Kenya, namely: Resident Magistrate, Senior Resident Magistrate, Chief Magistrate, Chief Magistrate and Chief Magistrate. The Chief Magistrate is the highest rank among magistrates and also has administrative control of the courts of first instance within his or her jurisdiction.

A Chief Justice is responsible for litigation not exceeding seven million Kenyan shillings. For senior senior judges, the limit for litigation is not more than five million Kenyan shillings; For senior judges, these disputes do not exceed four million Kenyan shillings. Senior resident magistrates are responsible for disputes up to three million Kenyan shillings, and resident magistrates for disputes up to two million Kenyan shillings. [16] In the late 1990s, a municipal judge position was created for district courts on a litigation basis.